Chevrolet Sonic manuals

Chevrolet Sonic Repair Manual: Tire Terminology and Definitions

Chevrolet Sonic Repair Manual / Chassis / Wheels/Tires / Tires / Tire Terminology and Definitions

Air Pressure

The amount of air inside the tire pressing outward on each square inch of the tire. Air pressure is expressed in kPa (kilopascal) or psi (pounds per square inch).

Accessory Weight

The combined weight of optional accessories. Some examples of optional accessories are automatic transmission, power steering, power brakes, power windows, power seats, and air conditioning.

Aspect Ratio

The relationship of a tire's height to its width.

Belt

A rubber coated layer of cords between the plies and the tread. Cords may be made from steel or other reinforcing materials.

Bead

The tire bead contains steel wires wrapped by steel cords that hold the tire onto the rim.

Bias Ply Tire

A pneumatic tire in which the plies are laid at alternate angles less than 90 degrees to the centerline of the tread.

Cold Tire Pressure

The amount of air pressure in a tire, measured in kPa (kilopascal) or psi (pounds per square inch) before a tire has built up heat from driving. See Tire Pressure.

Curb Weight

The weight of a motor vehicle with standard and optional equipment including the maximum capacity of fuel, oil, and coolant, but without passengers and cargo.

DOT Markings

A code molded into the sidewall of a tire signifying that the tire is in compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Motor Vehicle Safety Standards. The DOT code includes the Tire Identification Number (TIN), an alphanumeric designator which can also identify the tire manufacturer, production plant, brand, and date of production.

GVWR

Gross Vehicle Weight Rating. See Vehicle Load Limits.

GAWR FRT

Gross Axle Weight Rating for the front axle. See Vehicle Load Limits.

GAWR RR

Gross Axle Weight Rating for the rear axle. See Vehicle Load Limits.

Intended Outboard Sidewall

The side of an asymmetrical tire, that must always face outward when mounted on a vehicle.

Kilopascal (kPa)

The metric unit for air pressure.

Light Truck (LT-Metric) Tire

A tire used on light duty trucks and some multipurpose passenger vehicles.

Load Index

An assigned number ranging from 1 to 279 that corresponds to the load carrying capacity of a tire.

Maximum Inflation Pressure

The maximum air pressure to which a cold tire can be inflated. The maximum air pressure is molded onto the sidewall.

Maximum Load Rating

The load rating for a tire at the maximum permissible inflation pressure for that tire.

Maximum Loaded Vehicle Weight

The sum of curb weight, accessory weight, vehicle capacity weight, and production options weight.

Normal Occupant Weight

The number of occupants a vehicle is designed to seat multiplied by 68 kg (150 lb). See Vehicle Load Limits.

Occupant Distribution

Designated seating positions.

Outward Facing Sidewall

The side of an asymmetrical tire that has a particular side that faces outward when mounted on a vehicle. The side of the tire that contains a whitewall, bears white lettering, or bears manufacturer, brand, and/or model name molding that is higher or deeper than the same moldings on the other sidewall of the tire.

Passenger (P-Metric) Tire

A tire used on passenger cars and some light duty trucks and multipurpose vehicles.

Recommended Inflation Pressure

Vehicle manufacturer's recommended tire inflation pressure as shown on the tire placard. See Tire Pressure and Vehicle Load Limits.

Radial Ply Tire

A pneumatic tire in which the ply cords that extend to the beads are laid at 90 degrees to the centerline of the tread.

Rim

A metal support for a tire and upon which the tire beads are seated.

Sidewall

The portion of a tire between the tread and the bead.

Speed Rating

An alphanumeric code assigned to a tire indicating the maximum speed at which a tire can operate.

Traction

The friction between the tire and the road surface. The amount of grip provided.

Tread

The portion of a tire that comes into contact with the road.

Treadwear Indicators

Narrow bands, sometimes called wear bars, that show across the tread of a tire when only 1.6 mm (1/16 in) of tread remains. See When It Is Time for New Tires.

UTQGS (Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards)

A tire information system that provides consumers with ratings for a tire's traction, temperature, and treadwear. Ratings are determined by tire manufacturers using government testing procedures. The ratings are molded into the sidewall of the tire. See Uniform Tire Quality Grading.

Vehicle Capacity Weight

The number of designated seating positions multiplied by 68 kg (150 lb) plus the rated cargo load. See Vehicle Load Limits.

Vehicle Maximum Load on the Tire

Load on an individual tire due to curb weight, accessory weight, occupant weight, and cargo weight.

Vehicle Placard

A label permanently attached to a vehicle showing the vehicle capacity weight and the original equipment tire size and recommended inflation pressure. See “Tire and Loading Information Label” under Vehicle Load Limits.

Tire Rotation
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Tire and Wheel Removal and Installation
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